*All medications have both common (generic) and brand names. The brand name is what a specific manufacturer calls the product (e.g., Tylenol®). The common name is the medical name for the medication (e.g., acetaminophen). A medication may have many brand names, but only one common name. This article lists medications by their common names. For information on a given medication, check our Drug Information database. For more information on brand names, speak with your doctor or pharmacist.
Trichotillomania is a psychiatric impulse-control disorder.17 The mean age of onset is eight years in boys and 12 years in girls, and it is the most common cause of childhood alopecia.1,15 Although any part of the body can be involved, the scalp is the most common. Patients also may eat the plucked hairs (trichophagy), causing internal complications such as bowel obstruction.18 The hair loss often follows a bizarre pattern with incomplete areas of clearing (Figure 9). The scalp may appear normal or have areas of erythema and pustule formation. A scalp biopsy may be necessary to rule out other etiologies, because patients may not acknowledge the habit.
During a hair transplant procedure, a dermatologist or cosmetic surgeon removes tiny patches of skin, each containing one to several hairs, from the back or side of your scalp. Sometimes a larger strip of skin containing multiple hair groupings is taken. He or she then implants the hair follicle by follicle into the bald sections. Some doctors recommend using minoxidil after the transplant, to help minimize hair loss. And you may need more than one surgery to get the effect you want. Hereditary hair loss will eventually progress despite surgery.

One more disease that causes hair loss is male pattern baldness. About two out of three men, experience hair loss by their age of 60 and most of the time, the hair loss is because of male pattern baldness. Such type of hair loss, caused by a combo of genes and male sex hormones, usually follow a classic pattern where the hair recedes at the temples, thus leaving an M-shaped hairline.


According to the International Society of Hair Restoration Surgery, since 2004, the number of female surgical hair restoration patients worldwide increased 24 percent. Modern surgical hair restoration procedures such as Follicular Unit Transplantation (FUT) and Follicular Unit Extraction (FUE) allow surgeons to take hair from the back of the head (genetically permanent hair zone) and transplant it to the areas where balding has occurred. The reason why the hair does not fall out once transplanted in its new location is because those hair follicles take on the same characteristics as the hair in the area where it originated, the genetically permanent zone. Both approaches result in lasting outcomes. In order to know if you are a candidate, Dr. Yaker will go over your medical history and examine your hair and scalp. He will determine if you have ample, good quality hair in the permanent hair zone in order to be able to relocate those hair follicles to the areas of hair loss. 

According to the U.S. National Library of Medicine, autoimmune diseases occur when your immune system, which is your body’s method of protecting you from disease, turns against itself and attacks healthy cells in your body. It’s not clear what causes any autoimmune diseases. There is evidence that they tend to run in families. And it’s also known that women, particularly African-American, Hispanic-American, and Native-American women, are more prone to getting them.
It is perfectly normal for people to shed 50 to 100 hairs per day. This generally doesn't cause noticeable thinning of scalp hair because new hair is growing in at the same time that hair is shedding. However, hair loss occurs when this hair growth cycle and shedding is disrupted or when the hair follicle becomes destroyed and replaced with scar tissue. Female pattern hair loss (androgenetic alopecia) is the most common form of hair loss in women. This occurs gradually and is caused by genetics (from either side of the family), age, and the action of a specific male hormone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT). This hormone is found in lesser amounts in women and it preys on the hair follicles, preventing them from receiving vital nutrients for proper hair follicle growth, leading to the hairs shrinking, and resulting in a shorter lifespan. Interestingly, DHT does not need to be elevated to generate hair loss. Estrogen, when lowered as commonly seen in menopause, creates a change in the ratio of male to female hormones, giving an edge to these male hormones. Compounded with the sensitivity of DHT to the hair follicles, heredity can affect the age at which a woman begins to lose her hair, as well as the rate of hair loss and the extent of baldness. 
The pattern of hair loss, especially whether it is focal or diffuse, also may be helpful (Figure 1). The hair-pull test gives a rough estimate of how much hair is being lost.2,4  It is done by grasping a small portion of hair and gently applying traction while sliding the fingers along the hair shafts. Usually one to two hairs are removed with this technique. The hairs are then examined under a microscope (Table 2).

Yes, absolutely. There are certain hair treatments, as well as styles, that can trigger hair loss: tight braids, pigtails, hair weaves, and cornrows can all trigger temporary hair loss called traction alopecia. Chemical relaxers; overuse of chemical colorants; hot-oil treatments; overuse of flat irons, curling irons, or even hot blow-dryers can all damage hair at the root, causing it to fall out. If you are experiencing hair loss, its best to schedule an appointment with our office so that we can help diagnose your issue and determine how best to your hair loss.


Rogaine’s foam squirts out just like hair mousse and is applied with “cool, dry hands.” Applying means working the foam down to the scalp where you want to see thicker growth — for it to work, “it has to get into your scalp,” Dr. Wolfeld explains. “If it sits on your hair, it’s not really as effective.” Once massaged, it dissolves into a watery liquid that leaves a tingly sensation, “but no burning!” one of our balding testers was happy to discover.
Once male-pattern baldness starts, it’s not going to stop until every last hair on your head has shrunk or shed, though the rate at which this happens differs from person to person and depends on genetics. And since the grind of hair loss is unending, it’s important to start treatment as soon as your hairline starts bothering you. If you’re looking for a more quantitative metric, Dr. Paul McAndrews, clinical professor of dermatology at the USC School of Medicine and member of the International Society of Hair Restoration Surgery, assures me that “you have to lose half your hair before the human eye can tell.” (Of course, if you don’t care about losing your hair and are fine with going full Prince William and shaving your head, go for it. We’ve got some recommendations for razors and hair trimmers to help you out on that front.)
It is expensive ($700) to see him. He does give you a bill which you can submit to your insurance company (max reimbursement $150-$200). He will send you a lab slip once you sign up for the appt so you don’t have to go through any other doctor to get the labs done. I have regular insurance through work and didn’t get charged at the lab. If you do go to see him, I highly recommend reading his book first so you know what to expect. He spends alot of time with you (initial consultation is 1 hour and 30 minutes) but you don’t want to waste any of that time on questions that he answered in his book). In my opinion, he is a very learned and specialized physician. he has had excellent training and has taken a personal self interest in this. He is the only physician I have seen. I have not yet tried a dermatologist.

"Firstly, even the very good ones won’t get to the root of the issue - pardon the pun - and prevent or treat male or female pattern baldness which is caused by genetics, nor deal with hormonal issues at the heart of female hair loss. But they can help make the hair you do have stronger and healthier. And they can be useful in putting a hair loss regime in place, along with medication like Minoxidil or Finasteride and/ or a hair transplant.


Hello. Chris, I am so happy that you made an appt to see Dr. Redmond. How did it go? I really hope it helped. i have been on treatment now for almost 3 months. Dr. Redmond told me to be patient, that things could take a year to improve, but I do feel mostly that things have stabilized. In my work (i am a physician) I have seen alot of sad cases in the last few weeks. Young patients with major illnesses, some possibly incurable and fatal. It has made me really sad. It has also made me realize that regardless of what is happening to my hair, I have to try and be happy. I have to be thankful that I am healthy and have wonderful family and friends. Not that it is a consolation, but for us, our illness is on the surface and not life threatening…unless we make it by the psychological part. Thank you for everyone who has contributed to this website so that I can deal with the psychological part better. I am doing research into wigs now and will let all of you know when I have more info. Supposedly there is a soap opera star who was bald at 14 and has been wearing wigs for a long time. She has made a line of wig’s I think called Amy’s presence. It seems that she has led a happy life despite her hairloss. Once I found out more, I will let you know. I know its not a cure, but at least it is a remedy. One day at a time, I know we can all get through this. Be well.
I’m 55.. gee, had to count with my fingers, lol~ but since I had started puberty I started losing my hair. I managed through the difficult years of Junior High and High school (2 college yrs) by having perms done. The many different ways of trying to cover it. At 14 being told its male hair baldness was pretty much saying nothing you can do. All my life I stayed away during the day time, or with hats, I even worked nights. Tried many items, then later in life diagnosed with PCOS, which makes sense, why would a young girl just starting puberty start going bald. My siblings had too much hair, my sister looked like Bernadette Peters, with twice the hair. About 4 yrs ago a life long friend, called me at 2 am, said turn on HSN, I did, and it was a color fill in~we both purchased it and I absolutely love it! I look normal enough to walk past you, just don’t stare too long, lol, its called Truhair by Ashley Scott. Cant be without it. I use the Rogaine womans 5%, this helps my hair from keep falling, use it every night before bed, I take 5000 vitamin d and 10,000 biotin~ I wish I had these items back when I was teenager, would have saved me decades of embarrassment and heartache. My bald spot/thinning spot looked like a monks cap. I feel the best I have in many, many years. My 23 yrs. daughter had 3.7 ovarian cancer, spread everywhere and she survived, but now..after her 5 yrs remission, she started losing her hair. I feel so horrible for her. I know its from chemo and she ended up having a full hysterectomy, and I’m trying to get her to see a Endorinologist, as I’m sure with hers its her hormones. I finally also gave this affliction to our Lord and the thinning has decreased significantly ! I’m going to keep praying! and also praying for a cure ! the torment of losing your hair is real and devastating.
*all photos are models and not actual patients.If you are interested in a prescription product, Hims will assist in setting up a visit for you with an independent physician who will evaluate whether or not you are an appropriate candidate for the prescription product and if appropriate, may write you a prescription for the product which you can fill at the pharmacy of your choice.

Alopecia areata is characterized by a localized area of complete hair loss (Figure 5). This may extend to the entire scalp (alopecia totalis) or the entire body (alopecia universalis)12,13 (Figure 6). Alopecia areata is probably secondary to an autoimmune reaction involving antibody, T-cell, and cytokine-mediated losses.14–16 The trait appears to be polygenic, affecting 0.1 to 0.2 percent of the population, with men and women equally affected.14 On microscopic evaluation, “exclamation-point” hairs are found, in which the proximal hair shaft has thinned but the distal portion remains of normal caliber (Figure 7). Spontaneous recovery usually occurs within six to 12 months, with hair in areas of re-growth often being pigmented differently.1,13 Prognosis is not as good if the condition persists longer than one year, worsens, or begins before puberty. Persons with a family history of the disorder, atopy, or Down syndrome also have a poorer prognosis.1 The recurrence rate is 30 percent, and recurrence usually affects the initial area of involvement.12 Thyroid abnormalities, vitiligo, and pernicious anemia frequently accompany alopecia areata.1,12,14
Most people naturally shed about 50 to 100 hairs a day, but sometimes men and women can shed much more, leading to thinning hair, hair loss, and over time, baldness. The causes of this hair loss can be a result of hormones, underlying medical conditions, and even certain medications like antidepressants, high-blood pressure medications, and NSAIDS (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medications). Sometimes, hair loss is purely genetic and can run in families.
Topical immunotherapy (i.e., contact sensitizers) is the most effective treatment option for chronic severe alopecia areata (Table 5).6 Response ranges from 40 to 60 percent for severe alopecia areata, and reaches approximately 25 percent for alopecia totalis and alopecia universalis.6 Because of potentially severe side effects, only clinicians who have experience with these agents should prescribe them.
When healthy hair is pulled out, at most a few should come out, and ripped hair should not be distributed evenly across the tugged portion of the scalp. In cases of alopecia areata, hair will tend to pull out more easily along the edge of the patch where the follicles are already being attacked by the body's immune system than away from the patch where they are still healthy.[11]
Family history will often tell the doctor what type of alopecia a person has. Occasionally, a punch biopsy may be necessary to determine the type of hair loss. Looking at plucked hairs under a microscope can help to tell the difference between alopecia areata and androgenic alopecia. Other tests might be done to check for autoimmune diseases like lupus that can accompany alopecia.
Okay, on the latter side if things, I would like all to know that with or without hair you are all beautiful. I don’t know you but I know what I have read about you and you all seem so courageous. I know how much it hurts to see so much of our hair falling out or gone but we have to be strong and realize that it is not the hair that is going to make us but our hearts. Diana, please stop stressing so much. Stress is the number one killer. My father always tells me that I worry so much but he constantly reminds me that if I was to leave this world who will be here to take care of my babies? Find happiness and comfort in God. Seek answers by praying. My prayers will and have been answered and they keep continuously getting answered…because without my prayers I would not have come across this website.
Conclusion? EAT MORE SEA SALT. DO NOT use table salt…ever. Low-salt and table salt diets contribute to heart attacks, diabetes, polycystic ovaries and obesity. They also promote toxicity and makes your body have an acidic pH, which is not good. That means gatorade is NOT replenishing. It’s better to take a dash of sea salt with water before and/or after exercising.

If you find yourself snacking at night before bed, it may be because you're bored or anxious — not truly hungry — and eating makes you feel better. Try eating a healthy dinner a bit later in the evening. If your stomach is truly growling before bed, try a protein-based snack like a hard-boiled egg or a slice of cheese. A few spoonfuls of yogurt or some fruit is another good option. 


If a pregnant woman comes in contact with crushed or broken Finasteride tablets, wash the contact area right away with soap and water. If a woman who is pregnant comes into contact with the active ingredient in Finasteride, a healthcare provider should be consulted. If a woman who is pregnant with a male baby swallows or comes in contact with the medicine in Finasteride, the male baby may be born with sex organs that are not normal.
Duke’s dermatologists diagnose and treat hair disorders, such as hair loss (alopecia), excessive hairiness (hirsutism), and abnormal hair growth (hypertrichosis). We understand that abnormal hair growth can be distressing and affect your self confidence. We work closely with you to diagnose the cause of your condition, and develop a personalized treatment plan that meets your medical needs, improves your condition, and helps you regain a positive self-image.
Several types of hair shaft abnormalities can lead to hair loss. These conditions cause strands of hair to thin and weaken, making them vulnerable to breaking. The hair loss doesn’t occur in the follicle but as a result of a break somewhere along the hair shaft, which is the visible part of a hair strand. This can result in overall thinning, as well as in many small, brittle hairs.
“If you don’t want a scar because you like to wear your hair short, you might opt for a “scarless” hair transplant,” says Dr. Joyce. Also known as follicular unit extraction (FUE), grafts are harvested one at a time with tiny punches that heal virtually undetected so you can still buzz your head. “If you’ve gone so bald that you don’t have a lot of donor hair on your head, we can do FUE extractions with body hair such as on your chest, stomach, back, and sometimes even the pubic area,” says Dr. Joyce.
Men, oh yeah, different ball game. Just think how much money is spent on prostate research and medication versus female cancers!!!!! This IS a male society, but just smile, that makes you feel better. Do not let this get under your skin. KNOW who you are with or without hair, you are one fabulous person, loving and shining your light on this world. Step into that, claim it, own it. Whoever is unkind to you, just love them, bless them and wish them well. They have a bigger problem than you, trust me. And the WILL bump into it one day and not know what hit them.
“There’s people selling pills and creams and lotions and whatever else, and sometimes you can’t even trust what ingredients they have in there,” he warned us when we spoke to him over the phone. Key takeaway: The hair loss industry is crazy dishonest, so we eliminated any treatments (especially homeopathic methods) that aren’t based in concrete, peer-reviewed science.
I am 20 and have been losing hair since I was 17. It is such a confidence killer. I really do miss my beautiful thick and black hair. Now my hair is thin and a bit gray as well. I only think of it sometimes…but I used to be so depressed i can barely get out of bed. Whenever I am talking to someone, I always wonder if they are looking at my hair. I am currently using Rogaine for Women…it worked one summer when I was following the regimen religiously. However, I am so bad with routines, so now I try to remember to put it on my scalp morning and night. I recently also started to take Shen Min Hir Nutrients…not sure if it works yet. Does anyone have any advice? I really want to get a hair biopsy but I don’t know how. The places I called offered scalp analysis to prepare for hair transplants…which is not something that I am considering. I also saw 2 derms, one didn’t know what was wrong and only offered Rogaine as a solution, and the other said it is androgenic alopecia. I think I might have hormonal problems, but really not that sure. My scalp is always oily and so is my skin. Before my hairloss, I had really itchy scalp. Now it’s still oily but I wash it every other day. I also dye my hair to hide the gray. Sometimes I just feel so ugly and depressed in thinking about my hair. Beautiful hair is the only thing that I want back.
although I have plenty of hair round the sides I was rather thin on top, and quite bald on the crown. So I started using onion juice to kick start the folicles. Then after, started to use juiced ginger. After a minute or so of either application I rubbed in coconut oil, and left the mixture on for an hour or so. Problem with wishing to see the hair growth as soon as possible, hair is slow growing and new hair is even slower, so one will have to wait 3 months for a good result. So, once or twice a week use onion and the same with the ginger. I found white onions are best, grate on the smallest hole ( not much needed)…..bonus, white hair turns black.
Medications are available that encourage regrowth of hair. These medications, such as topical minoxidil* and oral finasteride, are not appropriate for everyone with hair loss. Hair growth medications work to varying degrees in different people, and only trigger complete regrowth in a minority of individuals. They work best for people who have smaller amounts of hair loss. Hair loss returns if you stop taking the medication. Finasteride is not appropriate for women who may become pregnant, as it can cause severe birth defects. Spironolactone, although not approved by Health Canada for this purpose, is a medication that may help women who are losing hair due to excess testosterone. Biotin is a vitamin that makes hair and nails stronger and is often used as an adjuvant therapy.
The mission of the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases is to support research into the causes, treatment, and prevention of arthritis and musculoskeletal and skin diseases; the training of basic and clinical scientists to carry out this research; and the dissemination of information on research progress in these diseases.
Hello Ladies. I love this site. I will be brief. I have only been to 1 Endo and they told me my glucose was pre diabetic but that my TESTOSTERONE was too high. Not over the line but right there. He put me on the cure all of metformin but I haven’t taken it yet. I am trying to lower my testosterone by diet and exercise and also watching everything I eat. Its not doing much but I have been doing this for about a month now. The holidays kill me with wine, coffee, and sweets. I have read the reviews and will probably pick up that book but also hit another endo and a dermo. You guys keep the faith. PS In Houston. Any suggestions on a dermo or endo you like, shoot them my way. 

I have struggled with my hair for a long time now. I am quickly approaching my 40s and I have bad hair quality. Recently, I have also noticed that my hair has stopped growing as it used to. A few years ago I went to the salon on a monthly basis. Now, it takes me almost two months before I even need to cut my hair! I am desperate and I really need help right now. Hair is one of the most important parts of a woman and I don’t want to give up on this one. I went to the doctors but they didn’t found anything wrong with me. The exams I took showed that I am healthy and there’s no reason for this to even happen to me. Please, I really need hair advice urgently!!!!!!!!!!!!
So in closing, I echo my initial sentiments that I would always suggest seeing more than one doctor if possible. Look for one that is not only knowledgeable but one that also cares. Hair loss is not the same thing has having a blackhead removed from your back and requires more sensitivity and emotional understanding on the part of the physician. Ask a lot of questions and do your own research, even after receiving your “diagnosis.” Doctors are people and make mistakes too, this is your body and you have to be comfortable with the treatment.
Many medications are being studied, including abatacept, MEXIS/M6S, triamcinolone, secukinumab, tralonkinumab, apremilast, botulinum toxin, INCB018424, bimatoprost, clobetasol, AS101, autologous platelet-rich plasma, topical minoxidil, and nitric oxide gel.[27] Some of these medications are approved for other diseases, others are not available outside of studies.
I’ve been glued to these stories for hours now b/c they’re so similar to my own. My hair has always been thin but straight and manageable and for months now it’s texture has changed to frizzy, broken and very fragile. Needless to say the bald spots cannot be covered even with toppik so I’ve resorted to a wig for work and some social events. Dr’s have been totally unhelpful telling me that I’ve now gotten thyroid imbalance corrected. A naturopath has recommended a gluted free diet and PRP. Any results in either arena??? Thanks for this opportunity to share and compare.
I have had hair loss for the past several years. I have seen both endocrinologists and dermatologists. I had one derm who was good, but I unfortunately moved. She put me on minoxidil 5% and spironolactone. I am now seeing and endo but he has me on Synthroid and I was very interested to read on this site that it can actually be a cause of hair loss! If anyone can recommend a doctor in Chicago i would appreciate it. I see there are 2 other people asking for recommendations but I haven’t seen responses to them. Thanks!

Medications are available that encourage regrowth of hair. These medications, such as topical minoxidil* and oral finasteride, are not appropriate for everyone with hair loss. Hair growth medications work to varying degrees in different people, and only trigger complete regrowth in a minority of individuals. They work best for people who have smaller amounts of hair loss. Hair loss returns if you stop taking the medication. Finasteride is not appropriate for women who may become pregnant, as it can cause severe birth defects. Spironolactone, although not approved by Health Canada for this purpose, is a medication that may help women who are losing hair due to excess testosterone. Biotin is a vitamin that makes hair and nails stronger and is often used as an adjuvant therapy.
It is expensive ($700) to see him. He does give you a bill which you can submit to your insurance company (max reimbursement $150-$200). He will send you a lab slip once you sign up for the appt so you don’t have to go through any other doctor to get the labs done. I have regular insurance through work and didn’t get charged at the lab. If you do go to see him, I highly recommend reading his book first so you know what to expect. He spends alot of time with you (initial consultation is 1 hour and 30 minutes) but you don’t want to waste any of that time on questions that he answered in his book). In my opinion, he is a very learned and specialized physician. he has had excellent training and has taken a personal self interest in this. He is the only physician I have seen. I have not yet tried a dermatologist.
In contrast to trichotillomania, traction alopecia involves unintentional hair loss secondary to grooming styles. It often occurs in persons who wear tight braids (especially “cornrows”) that lead to high tension and breakage in the outermost hairs (Figure 10). Traction alopecia also occurs commonly in female athletes who pull their hair tightly in ponytails. The hair loss usually occurs in the frontal and temporal areas but depends on the hairstyle used. Treatment involves a change in styling techniques. Other hair-growth promoters may be needed in end-stage disease, in which the hair loss can be permanent even if further trauma is avoided.1
I am scared to find out whether I have PCOS…I was hoping to find out about my insulin as I sensed a major blood sugar problem for years, but I took the news surprisingly poorly. I’m more stressed than before and am terribly depressed. The doctor, by the way, had zero to say about it all. Nothing. His words “Ask your gynocologist, I am just a lowly MD.” [gasp]
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